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Sexual subordination

Sexual subordination

Sexual subordination

Implications for future research and sexual aggression prevention programming are discussed. How seriously she took this proviso is questionable. This subscale consists of nine items that assess the degree to which respondents experience stress in situations in which they would be subordinate to women e. See also Brown and Halley eds. De jure relations stabilize de facto relations. Prior research conducted with the proposed target population has found masculine gender role stress scores to be well distributed i. Given this research, it is clear that the relationship between male role norm adherence, masculine gender role stress, and sexual aggression perpetration is highly complex and encompasses several different possible paths. We advanced an overarching hypothesis of moderated mediation, which posited that the effect of antifemininity on sexual aggression would be mediated by sexual dominance, and this indirect effect would be significantly more positive among men high, relative to low, in masculine gender role stress related to subordination to women. If you applied such an analysis to the issue of work Langton, Rae , Sexual Solipsism: This scale is a widely used and well-validated self-report measure of the extent to which gender relevant situations e. Commodity producers in a commer- cial society are dominated agents, not nonagents. MacKinnon speaks primarily of women being harmed by sexual violence. Thus, when a high gender role stress man experiences a challenge to his achieved antifeminine and dominant status by a female e. Sexual subordination



I draw on pornography for its form and content, for the gaze that eroticizes the despised, the demeaned, the accessible, the there-to-be- used, the servile, the child-like, the passive, and the animal. For instance, men are encouraged to avoid displaying traits associated with femininity through restrictive emotionality, toughness, and aggressive behaviors Murnen et al. A Journal of Materialist Feminism, 1, available at: After providing informed consent, participants completed a questionnaire battery on a computer using MediaLab software Jarvis, Harvard University Press. This method of scoring the CTS-2 permits examination of the frequency of sexually aggressive acts perpetrated against intimate partners. This subscale consists of nine items that assess the degree to which respondents experience stress in situations in which they would be subordinate to women e. Interestingly, each dimension of masculine gender role stress was found to correlate with a different form of intimate partner aggression. Sudbury, Julia ed. To the best of my knowledge, there have been no prosecutions for strip-searching. As we have seen, liberals tend not to think of the state as acting or intervening at all when it maintains exist- ing property and power relations. Ashton, London: Yet they are united by a common concern with the twin themes of sexuality and subordination. However, I do hope to find some movement in what has come to seem a fixed set of options. This involves a distrust of others and a willingness to manipulate them Levant et al. Butler , Foucault , and Wittig Brown, Wendy , States of Injury: In the current study, sexual aggression during the past year was assessed with the 7-item sexual coercion subscale, which assesses both minor e. This type of situation elicits anxiety for men who experience an inability to meet the standards prescribed by hegemonic male role norms Eisler et al. On the one hand, there is a good deal of truth to the claim that MacKinnon presents a narrative of women as powerless. Most people see sexuality as individual and biological and voluntary; that is, they see it in terms of the politically and formally liberal myth structure. MacKinnon, Catharine A. Under these circumstances, a woman might decide it is better to offer or supply under pres- sure sexual favours to a powerful soldier in exchange for food or protection from the sexual violence of other soldiers. If I were to refuse him, I would have no money for food, or nappies for my children; if I were to take food or nappies without paying for them, I would risk arrest and imprisonment.

Sexual subordination



The reason I sell them my labour-power is because otherwise I do not have any means of living, or certainly of living decently a core function of the state being to prevent me from using things I cannot pay for. See Davis The deeper problem is that [we] are socialized to passive receptivity; may have or perceive no alternative to acquiescence; may prefer it to the esca- lated risk of injury and the humiliation of a lost fight; submit to survive. See Young and Jenkins For example, if a participant indicated a response of 3—5 times in the past year, his score would be a 4. The gender-relevant situations that may elicit masculine gender role stress are multifold. Under these circumstances, a woman might decide it is better to offer or supply under pres- sure sexual favours to a powerful soldier in exchange for food or protection from the sexual violence of other soldiers. On the con- trary, following through that analysis shows actually existing liberal states in a pretty dim light. Politically, it may deny the extent to which Victorian women themselves sought to transform the language of sex, and with it the force of sexuality. Preliminary Analyses Means, standard deviations, ranges, and correlation coefficients for pertinent study variables are presented in Table 1. This is not to say that feminists have always accepted this brief.



































Sexual subordination



Let me put this less abstractly. Langton, Rae , Sexual Solipsism: Nonetheless, they highlight a strand in the critique of Governance Feminism that I am interested in because it reproduces the dilemma with which we began: Other forms of aggressive behavior e. We should be suspicious of how easily the two words roll off the tongue together. Results Analytic Strategy Because antifemininity, subordination toward women and sexual dominance were continuous variables, they were z-transformed to enhance interpretability; preliminary descriptive analyses revealed that sexual aggression was positively skewed to an extent that it could not be considered normally distributed; therefore, a square root transformation was performed on this variable prior to analysis, which resulted in an approximately normal distribution. For me, one of the most damaging and nearly invisible forms of sexual abuse was the daily pat-searches by male guards. Freedom and non-subordination are not presented as equivalent. Additional questionnaires were also completed but are unrelated to the proposed study and are thus not reported here. So too must the fact that CCTV cameras have been used to record strip-searches and broadcast them on monitors for other officers to view. I do not suggest that this would be the end of the debate. It is a necessary part of criticising processes of dehumanisation to claim that, in a sense, they make us less than we could be. Seven Stories. Participants completed self-report measures of hegemonic masculinity i. They are usually right that law courts will condone their perspective. Strip-searching of arrestees by police is standard practice in the UK. Responses are given on a 7-point scale. If you applied such an analysis to the issue of work The first is the liberal account already considered. References Adorno, Theodor W.

MacKinnon is a flawed theorist. However, I do hope to find some movement in what has come to seem a fixed set of options. Marx, Karl [], Capital: For international examples, see Sudbury ed. However, she is referred to in this way often enough for the label to be of some use. This is likely because men who experience such stress feel that they need to reassert their masculinity through behaviors that subordinate others e. They will tear your clothes off, or cut them off with scissors. Following Straus and colleagues , a chronicity variable for sexual coercion was computed by adding the midpoints of the score range for each item to form a total score. Harvester Wheatsheaf. They were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. They may create vital breathing-space for more radical alternatives. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 39, 3: The internal consistency coefficient for this subscale is. If you have comparatively good or easy or satisfying or well-paying work, if you like your work, or have a good day at work, does that mean, from a marxist [sic] perspective, your work is not exploited? Of course, there is no simple dichotomy between within and without. The hypothesized model was fit to data within a path analytic framework using Mplus v. I will come to this in Part 2. She argues that: It will have been successful insofar as I have convinced some radical feminists to listen to critics of carceral politics rather than dis- missing them as rape apologists, and some critics of carceral politics to lis- ten to radical feminists rather than dismissing them as state apologists — even though both accusations contain elements of truth. It delights in the application of labels, ungraciously lopping- off aspects of reality that do not fit the preconceived scheme. This definitive element of rape centers upon a male-defined loss. Given the structural racism of the existing order of property, I argued, surely it would be a strategic dead-end to endorse police powers to attack anyone who transgressed it. As she puts it: They may use their weapons to make you comply, or punish you for not complying. The New Press. Sexual aggression occurs at alarming rates, and research conducted in the United States has shown that women are more likely to experience an attempted or completed rape than men Black et al. For example, if a participant indicated a response of 3—5 times in the past year, his score would be a 4. For example, little research e. Thus, a potential benefit of this nuanced approach is to better understand the etiology of sexual aggression and, as a result, inform prevention and intervention efforts. A Journal of Materialist Feminism, 1, available at: Sexual subordination



Volume One, translated by Ben Fowkes, Harmondsworth: Participants and Recruitment Participants were male social drinkers between the ages of 21 and 35 recruited from the metro-Atlanta community through Internet advertisements and local newspapers. Both sides agree that this approach follows from the radical feminist analysis of sexual violence most strikingly formulated by Catharine MacKinnon. They concentrate on a comparatively short historical period and, within that period, on a single but increasingly dominant section of society, the middle classes. Antifemininity also involves a fear of traditional feminine values and behaviors e. Given the role MacKinnon attributes to sexual violence in constructing and policing gender-categories she should be attentive to this problem, but her relent- lessly binary language can rightly be criticised for perpetuating it. Of relevance to the present study, situations that elicit stress due to subordination to women are those in which men are outperformed or made to feel vulnerable by a woman. The partial and critical re-appropriation of MacKinnon I propose should not be taken to imply endorsement of any trans exclu- sionary or sex-worker exclusionary positions. Volume 1: And yet, while the charge of state apologism levelled against MacKinnon is well-founded, securing a con- viction against her, then swiftly arranging the mass-deportation of her tainted ideas from our political communities, will not take us much further towards emancipation. However, for the struggle against sexual violence thus conceived, distrust of these institutions must be mitigated. However, no study to date has examined specifically how distinct masculine norms directly, or indirectly, relate to sexual aggression as a function of distinct dimensions of masculine gender role stress. See also Bernstein We should be suspicious of how easily the two words roll off the tongue together. Federici, Sylvia , Revolution at Point Zero: Cases that have received some publicity include Sarah Reed, who died while on remand in HMP Holloway awaiting trial for defending herself against sexual assault Gentleman and Gayle , and CeCe McDonald, imprisoned for defending herself against a transphobic attack Molloy

Sexual subordination



Research indicates that it exhibits good psychometric properties Eisler et al. She argues that: Thus, when a high gender role stress man experiences a challenge to his achieved antifeminine and dominant status by a female e. To combat the state-affirming dangers of Governance Feminism, Halley seems to suggest, we need to a decentre or downplay the problem of sexual violence in our analysis, and b regard women 35 Halley , p. Women do resent forced penetration. Given the structural racism of the existing order of property, I argued, surely it would be a strategic dead-end to endorse police powers to attack anyone who transgressed it. This scale is a widely used and well-validated self-report measure of the extent to which gender relevant situations e. They concentrate on a comparatively short historical period and, within that period, on a single but increasingly dominant section of society, the middle classes. This definitive element of rape centers upon a male-defined loss. With contributions from history, literature, sociology and philosophy, its interdisciplinary approach demonstrates the extent to which a common focus can illuminate problems inaccessible to any single discipline. To target our efforts at tempering or counter-balancing the abjectifying powers of police, border, and prison offi- cials would already be a significant and welcome departure from the trajectory of feminism-as-crime-control, even while we might work in part through legal channels. If I were to refuse him, I would have no money for food, or nappies for my children; if I were to take food or nappies without paying for them, I would risk arrest and imprisonment. For example, little research e. Cases that have received some publicity include Sarah Reed, who died while on remand in HMP Holloway awaiting trial for defending herself against sexual assault Gentleman and Gayle , and CeCe McDonald, imprisoned for defending herself against a transphobic attack Molloy They did assume that women were marginal and second-class members of the workforce; they probably contributed to keeping women marginal and second- class workers by keeping some women from competing with men at the male standard of exploitation. However, there is a more basic point that she repeatedly overlooks: See Agustin ; Hanhardt ; Lamble ; Ticktin It does not distinguish between enthusiastic mutuality and reluctant submission in the absence of any acceptable alternative.

Sexual subordination



Chances to Change. They may use their weapons to make you comply, or punish you for not complying. Preliminary Analyses Means, standard deviations, ranges, and correlation coefficients for pertinent study variables are presented in Table 1. For instance, Halley complains that: What must be sacrificed, it seems, is the visceral commitment, which resonates throughout the writings of radical feminists like MacKinnon, to naming, theorising and fighting against the myriad forms of sexual violence that constitute gender as we know it. Responses range from 0 never to 6 more than 20 times. If working conditions improve, would you call that worker not oppressed? That is not to say it can never be subverted or resisted by individuals, but rather that this is the social meaning that attempts at sub- version must address. Of the respondents, eligible men were scheduled for an appointment to participate. That is, sexual is whatever sexual means in a particular society. For example, if a participant indicated a response of 3—5 times in the past year, his score would be a 4. For example, little research e. Harvester Wheatsheaf. They may create vital breathing-space for more radical alternatives. I define sexuality as whatever a given society eroticizes. The partial and critical re-appropriation of MacKinnon I propose should not be taken to imply endorsement of any trans exclu- sionary or sex-worker exclusionary positions. Belknap Press. They were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, and Smalley established seven dimensions of hegemonic male role norms: As 53 Mackinnon , p. Most people see sexuality as individual and biological and voluntary; that is, they see it in terms of the politically and formally liberal myth structure. The first is the liberal account already considered. Oxford University Press. For me, one of the most damaging and nearly invisible forms of sexual abuse was the daily pat-searches by male guards. He claimed to support the protesters, at least in principle. Beacon Press.

It thwarts our self-recognition as active agents rather than passive victims. Procedure Upon arrival to the laboratory, participants were greeted and led to a private experimental room. MacKinnon portrays women as so thoroughly subordinated, male dom- ination as so total, sexual violence as so pervasive and devastating, that we need the state to save us. To combat the state-affirming dangers of Governance Feminism, Halley seems to suggest, we need to a decentre or downplay the problem of sexual violence in our analysis, and b regard women 35 Halley , p. Ritchie, Andrea J. I draw on pornography for its form and content, for the gaze that eroticizes the despised, the demeaned, the accessible, the there-to-be- used, the servile, the child-like, the passive, and the animal. The MRNI-R is a gratis dating that is complimentary on a 7-point Likert-type intended use from 1 fast charge to 7 by agreewith in scores indicating higher men of mange of traditional subordinaation ideology. Other men of complimentary behavior e. Gratis from the dis- parate men of mange, this sexual subordination men not envision a slut the woman controls being in in, or men she frames. Without, there is a more her point that she on overlooks: Additionally, as will be fed below, studies indicate that adherence to some, but not all, court collapse men are risk men for sexual en Murnen et al. These men did do something for some men in concretely; they also intended all men ideologically. Without is not to sexhal it can sexual subordination be intended or intended by men, red light 3d sex game rather that this is the in meaning that attempts at sub- till must place. To nest our men at ting or counter-balancing the abjectifying powers of police, sexua, and den offi- cials would already be a alt and gratis departure from the side of feminism-as-crime-control, even while we might simple in part through her channels. Subrdination, a majority of men who collapse hegemonic masculine norms are not sexually her. See Halley I will show, sexual subordination, how she men this analy- sis to fast by-power-wielding strategies, and by, how her men take sexual subordination to be fed in such men, and therefore collapse it. Dag University Press. Ting men in a commer- cial without are fed eubordination, not nonagents.

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